Soils and Food Production: Feeding the World – in this month’s Soil Science Online Blog we look at how Soils affects food production.
Utilizing a wide range of analytic tools, researchers at North Carolina State University have figured out why pockets of the southeastern Piedmont region contain high concentrations of manganese in well water, particularly in more shallow wells. The findings highlight the importance of testing well water to ensure its safety.
Only a day of rain could bring Dr. Tommy Carter in from the research fields to his greenhouse here on campus. This persevering dedication is largely responsible for his success in the research partnership that has resulted in the first drought-resistant soybean cultivar.
This recently introduced cultivar exhibits slow or delayed canopy wilting, sustained nitrogen fixation during drought stress, and a water-conserving transpiration response to drying air. In other words: it’s drought-resistant, and as such, it has become the basis for drought resistant breeding in the USA. How it came to be is a success story Dr. Carter is happy to share: a complex story taking place over decades; a tale of unprecedented collaboration.
Dr. Carter is a generous scientist, crediting many faculty and staff contributions through the long-ranging combination of studies stretching over three decades.
He begins, “This has been such a true joint collaboration by NC State and USDA.” Dr. Carter also acknowledges generous funding from NC Soybean Producers, the American Soybean Association and the United Soybean Board through the years of research.
“It’s a continuing process. When we started on this, there was basically nothing known about drought-tolerance in soybeans, so we’ve had to invent technology as we’ve gone along: how do you breed for it? We know how to measure certain aspects of how plants respond to stress. Plant physiologists have known how to do that, and [that knowledge is] getting better all the time. But how do you breed for drought tolerance? That’s something that we’ve had to build as we’ve gone along.”
The research began more than thirty years ago. “The first 15 years of this work was about screening the germplasm collection from around the world.” (Germplasm contains the information for a plant species’ makeup.) “We’d screen for the ones that looked interesting, then do the first round of breeding from them. We started at square one, where there was nothing known.”
Dr. Carter recalls NC State personnel. “Gene Kamprath did a lot of consulting to get me up to speed. We want to include Doug Gross’s post doc work. But even before that, Jim Dunphy, soybean extension specialist, had his graduate student, Al Wood looking at that variety. Working with post doc Jim Cappy, Dr. Carter found that “there’s not much natural variation in cultivars farmers were growing for this trait, so we started to look at exotic materials and grow them on sand piles.”
1982 brought the first really systematic screening of a germplasm collection for resistance to drought, performed at the NCDA Clinton Horticultural Crops Research Station. “We were growing, testing there for a couple of years…then came a big drought during flowering time.”
A momentous day
Hundreds of soybean plants of various genotypes were exposed to the drought. “On the day we visited, all the plants were wilted– except for one genotype. The same was true in the two other fields of soybeans: only one genotype was standing healthy.” They were all reps of the same genotype. A eureka moment? “It was a momentous day. No doubt about it.”
This soybean cultivar had an unusual response to drying air: most plants shrivel up, straining for more moisture; this one stayed healthy by conserving water within itself.
Enter Dr. Bob Patterson. “Bob taught me a lot about the physiology of plants and gave me a lot of ideas about how breeders can adapt what physiologists know about how to screen for drought tolerance.
Jim Cappy and Doug Gross and I ID’ed it as a soybean type from Japan: P(lant) I(ntroduction) 416937.”
“Grad student Rick Sloan, Bob Patterson and I published the first paper about the unusual root system that characterized this PI. It was definitely slow wilting, had an unusual root system.”
“In the late 90s, Tom Rufty got in the game with us; he started working with us on this PI. He’s a physiologist, figuring out the mechanism, which featured high aluminum response in acid subsoil response.”
“We got a big shot in the arm 1999-2000. Tom Sinclair moved here and we added other breeders and wound up being a kind of consortium of researchers.”
Expanding the study
The United Soybean Board provided funds to expand the study, so even more of the cultivars were screened until another resistant one was found, this time one from Nepal which had different mechanisms. Dr. Carter’s team started breeding both, with research conducted as parallel studies for a few years, then as one study which led to the new cultivar: the culmination of groundbreaking collaborative research by plant breeders and plant physiologists.
What’s next for this exceptional new cultivar? It’s a non-GMO variety, so while it’s available as a commercial seed, it’s also finding a strong market as parental stock. “And there’s plenty of room to expand and continue the research.”
Dr. Carter earned his B.S. and M.S. from University of Georgia. “That program was more of the physiology bent, but I studied the breeding angle using physiology outlook and terms.” Then he “came home” to NCSU for his Ph.D.
“I think the combination of those two experiences is what gave me the insight to pursue something that we didn’t know much about, but had confidence we could get somewhere. NC State is the Mecca for breeding. The Sandhills Research Station is probably one of the best places in the country to do our work.”
After leading the way for others to continue cultivar research, Dr. Tommy Carter maintains a characteristically modest view of his achievement.
“It’s been fun…I want to make a difference. Turns out science has been fun. That’s what we do in agriculture. It’s science, but it also solves problems and at the end of the day, you’ve made a difference. That’s true of USDA as well as Crop and Soil Sciences. Do good science, but make a difference. That’s what I preach to my students.”
For faculty and staff, come out for the first time to see how you can use this facility for your classes or revisit us and let us know how we can improve things.
Students come out and meet other agroecology undergraduates and graduate students with similar interests.
From the shifting sands of the Outer Banks in the east to the high mountain soils of the west, undergraduates from across the United States got an up-close look this summer at North Carolina’s variety of soils and landscapes.
At an overlook on the Blue Ridge Parkway, Dr. Vepraskas lectures on how soils formed in the Appalachian Mountains. Photo by Adam Howard.
NC State University’s Soil Geomorphology Tour was part of a National Science Foundation-sponsored program called an REU, or research experience for undergraduates. It is currently the only soils-related REU in the country.
NC State received a three-year grant from NSF to offer the Basic and Environment Soil Science Training program. NC State University graduate students also joined the trip, as did visiting undergraduate and graduate students from Brazil and a visiting scientist from China.